Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a liver disorder. This is caused by a virus. There is a vaccine to protect against it. If this occurs, it can cause organ scarring, liver failure, and cancer, and it can be life-threatening.

The signs and symptoms of hepatitis B vary from moderate to severe. 
They usually occur around one to four months after you have been infected, but you could see them as early as two weeks after your infection. 
Some individuals, usually young children, may have no symptoms at all. 

Signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B can include:

Abdominal pain, Fever, Dark urine, Loss of appetite, Joint pain, Weakness and fatigue Nausea and vomiting, and Jaundice.


Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) virus. The virus is transmitted from person to person by blood, semen, or other body fluids. By sneezing or coughing, it does not spread.

Popular ways that HBV can spread is:

Sexual interaction: You could have hepatitis B if you have unprotected sex with someone who is sick. You may get the virus if the person's blood, saliva, semen, or vaginal secretions touch your body.

Sharing the needles: HBV spreads quickly by needles and syringes contaminated with contaminated blood. Sharing IV drug paraphernalia puts you at high risk for hepatitis B.

Mother to child: Pregnant women infected with HBV may be able to transmit the virus to their infants during childbirth. However, the infant must be vaccinated to prevent infection in almost all cases. Speak to your doctor about getting tested for hepatitis B if you are pregnant or want to become pregnant.

Risk factors:

Hepatitis B spreads from an infected person by contact with blood, semen, or other body fluids. Your risk of infection with hepatitis B increases if you:

•    Had unprotected sex with multiple sex partners or someone who is infected with HBV
•    Share needles during the use of IV drugs
•    Men having send with men
•    Live with someone who has a chronic infection with HBV
•    Is a child born to an infected mother
•    Have a job which exposes you to human blood


Serious complications may result from chronic HBV, such as:
Cirrhosis: Inflammation associated with hepatitis B infection may lead to significant liver scarring (cirrhosis), which may affect the ability of the liver to function.

Liver cancer: People with chronic hepatitis B infection are at increased risk of developing liver cancer.

Liver failure: Acute liver failure is a disease in which the essential functions of the liver are shut down. When this happens, a liver transplant is required to support life.

People with chronic hepatitis B may develop kidney disease or inflammation of their blood vessels.


Hepatitis B vaccine is normally administered as three or four doses over a span of six months.

The vaccine for hepatitis B is suggested for:

•    The newborn
•    Children and teenagers who are not vaccinated at birth
•    Health care staff, emergency workers 
•    Anyone with a sexually transmitted infection, like HIV
•    People who are having sex with men
•    People who have multiple sex partners
•    Sexual partners of those with hepatitis B
•    People who inject or share illicit drugs with needles and syringes
•    People with chronic diseases of the liver
•    People with end-stage renal disease

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